are floodplain forests of Central and Central Asia. Tugai forests are a miracle of nature, created among deserts by life-giving flowing water and generous sun. Tugai are formed from riparian trees and shrubs of coastal areas, which are flooded during seasonal floods. Tugai plants begin to bloom after the spring floods of the Amu Darya, and after the summer floods, they scatter seeds. These seeds fall on the soil, washed from salts and covered with river silt deposits, and germinate quickly. This went on for millennia.